Castration (removal of testes) and spaying (removal of uterus and ovaries) is usually recommended for non-breeding pets. As well as preventing unwanted pregnancies, and minimising behavioural problems such as straying and aggression, neutering also has health benefits. Entire male cats are more prone to fighting, which can allow transmission of diseases such as FIV and FeLV. Queens and bitches are at risk of developing life threatening uterine infections. Spaying bitches early in life reduces the chance of developing mammary tumours. Also, male dogs can be protected from developing some prostate problems and some tumours later in life.